Libya:
News and Views [ October 2002 ]


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Thursday, 31 October, 2002: Canada has issued a rare travel advisory warning citizens born in Iran, Iraq, Libya, Sudan or Syria to avoid traveling to the U.S. The Canadian advisory comes in the wake of the deportation of a Syrian-born Canadian to Syria by U.S. immigration authorities when he arrived at New York's JFK airport. Maher Arar, a 32-year-old engineer with dual Canada-Syria citizenship, is now being detained in a Syrian jail. [UPI]
Thursday, 31 October, 2002: A network of Yugoslav firms has been helping Libya to develop long-range cruise missiles, according to a confidential U.S. complaint to Belgrade. The three-page document says the firms may also have helped Iraq to develop its missiles. "The U.S. opposes all missile-related cooperation with Libya and Iraq and works actively to impede their access to missile-related equipment and technology," the document said. [Reuters]
Thursday, 31 October, 2002: The Libyan government and lawyers for families of the 270 people killed in the Lockerbie bombig in 1988 have come to a tentative agreement on a $2.7 billion settlement, according to documents obtained by CNN. Once U.S. sanctions against Libya are lifted, Tripoli would pay an additional $4 million to each family. An additional $2 million to be paid to each family once Libya is removed from the U.S. list of state sponsors of terrorism. [CNN]
Thursday, 31 October, 2002: Libyan planes bombed rebel positions in the Central African Republic's capital Tuesday before loyalist troops launched a heavy attack on insurgents holding out for a fifth day, diplomats and residents said. The latest of many eruptions of violence in Bangui since a 1996 mutiny has inflamed tension with neighboring Chad, which stands accused by the Central African Republic of helping rebels trying to oust President Patasse. [Reuters]
Thursday, 31 October, 2002: Libya's notice to the Arab League (AL) that it wishes to withdraw from the organisation was not the first of its kind. Tripoli had in the past flirted with the idea of suspending its membership in the league. While it may be said that for several years all has not been well with the AL, Libya's decision to withdraw from the AL is certainly not the most constructive manner to go about evolving the organisation to the better. [Jordan Times]
Thursday, 31 October, 2002: A Saudi Airlines flight arrived in Tripoli Wednesday, marking the resumption of flights between Libya and Saudi Arabia after an eight-year suspension. [PANA]
Thursday, 31 October, 2002: In Italy, a series of earthquakes shook the Mount Etna area Tuesday, two days after the volcano erupted. Satellite photos showed ash drifted as far away as Libya, some 400 miles away. [AP]
Wednesday, 30 October, 2002: Lawyers representing Libya have signed the latest version of an offer to compensate relatives of the 270 people killed in the Lockerbie bombing in 1988, according to a letter made available on Tuesday. The letter, circulated to the families on Monday by the New York law firm Kreindler and Kreindler, makes minor changes to an offer circulated in August but this time it bears the signatures of five lawyers representing Libya. Under the offer, relatives would receive up to $10 million for each person who died in the explosion, in three installments linked to the lifting of sanctions against Libya. The lawyers signing for the Libyan side are Robert Mirone, Anne Sefrioui, Mohamed Abdul Jawad, Azzam Eddeeb and Ali Dawi. [Reuters]
Wednesday, 30 October, 2002: Libya, which is threatening to withdraw from the Arab League, has requested an emergency meeting of the pan-Arab organization to discuss its complaints. In a telephone call to League Secretary-general Amr Moussa, Libyan African Unity Minister Ali al-Triki (photo) requested the "holding of an urgent summit to debate the situation in the Arab world". Moussa told Triki during the telephone call that an extraordinary meeting of foreign ministers from the League’s 22 members would be held soon and could address Libya’s concerns. [Arab News]
Wednesday, 30 October, 2002: The Zimbabwean government signed Tuesday a Memorandum of Understanding with an Libyan NGO which will see it come to provide humanitarian assistance to vulnerable groups in Zimbabwe. Public Service and Social Welfare Minister July Moyo signed on behalf of the Zimbabwean government while the regional representative of the World Islamic Call Society (WICS) of Tripoli, Libya in southern Africa Saad Abdul Salam Falah signed on behalf of the organization. Falah said the WICS intended to assist disadvantaged members of the society like the sick, the widowed, the orphaned and victims of natural disasters. [Xinhua]
Wednesday, 30 October, 2002: Chain stores in Libya have ordered for 14 tonnes of horticulture products from Uganda that include pineapples, passion fruit and bananas to be supplied per week. "We were asked to produce 14 tons of horticulture products for the consumers in Libya," the Commissioner Crop Production and Marketing Lenny Iga has said. [New Vision]
Wednesday, 30 October, 2002: Qatari officials denied on Tuesday rumours of a coup attempt in the energy-rich Gulf Arab state, seen as a possible launch pad for any U.S. attack on Iraq. Qatar's Emir Hamad al-Thani -- who overthrew his father in a bloodless coup in 1995 -- is currently on a tour of North Africa which has already taken him to Tunisia, Algeria and Libya. [Reuters]


Tuesday, 29 October, 2002: Italian Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi arrived Monday in Tripoli, one of only a few high-ranking European officials to visit Libya in the last 20 years. Libya "is asking in effect for a gesture of generosity from Italy" to normalize relations, Berlusconi said after meeting with Libyan leader Qadhafi. He noted that 25 percent of Italy's energy is supplied from Libya and that "soon, with a new gas line, we'll be up to 30 percent." [AP]
Tuesday, 29 October, 2002: Yugoslav defence companies have been developing a cruise missile for Iraq for the past two years, the US has told the Yugoslav government. Five private sub-contractors were set up to implement the deal, including a company which worked on developing a turbo jet engine for use in medium to long range cruise missiles. The same company is alleged to have helped to build a plant in Libya to produce rocket propellant, and to have helped Libya to obtain US software to improve the accuracy of missiles. [The Guardian]
Tuesday, 29 October, 2002: Libya's demand to leave the Arab League will not be carried out "for the moment", Arab League chief Amr Mussa said on Al-Jazeera on Monday. Sudan's Foreign Minister Mustafa Ismail, who met Qadhafi on Sunday, confirmed to Al-Jazeera that the withdrawal had been put on hold, which he said showed "flexibility" in Tripoli. [SAPA-AFP]
Tuesday, 29 October, 2002: Heavy fighting broke out on Monday in Bangui, capital of the Central African Republic as government troops battled rebels loyal to a former army chief. Reports said the sound of automatic weapons echoed from two km north of the residence of President Patasse on the fringes of an area the rebels have held since Friday. A government spokesman said loyalist troops had surrounded the rebels, who were told to "surrender or be crushed." The loyalists are being supported by at least 200 Libyan troops. [Xinhua]
Tuesday, 29 October, 2002: Al-Saadi al-Qadhafi (photo), son of Libyan leader Mu'ammar al-Qadhafi, has been approved as a board member of Italian champions Juventus, the club he supports and which is part-owned by Libya. Soccer-mad Al-Saadi will take one of two new board seats together with car designer Andrea Pininfarina, Juventus said in a statement on Monday. [Reuters]
Tuesday, 29 October, 2002: Al-Qaida draws much of its income from contributions by a worldwide network of individuals and charities, including some in the United States, a CIA report says. ...The CIA report also assesses the stability of a number of regimes: ...The regimes of Libya, Syria, Vietnam and Georgia appear stable, at least in the near future. [AP]
Tuesday, 29 October, 2002: Magiste, the Italian real estate company, has confirmed it started buying shares in Italian banking group Capitalia in August. Capitalia's other shareholders are Italian banking foundation Ente Cassa di Roma, Dutch financial group ABN Amro, Italian insurance group Toro and Libyan Arab Foreign bank. [Financial Times]

   

   
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Monday, 28 October, 2002: Libyan fighter jets on Sunday attacked rebel positions in the Central African Republic during a third day of fighting between Libyan troops protecting President Ange-Felix Patasse and supporters of exiled ex-army chief Francois Bozize. Heavy artillery and automatic weapons fire broke out at 0800 GMT near the presidential palace, which Libyan troops have guarded since a failed coup attempt against Patasse in May 2001. [AFP]
Monday, 28 October, 2002: Libya's Foreign Ministry strongly condemned on Sunday the terrorist attack in Moscow. Libya's Foreign Ministry called this action "a terrorist evil deed which has nothing in common with the postulates of Islam and actions of Muslims". [RIA Novosti]
Monday, 28 October, 2002: Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak and Libyan leader Colonel Mu'ammar al-Qadhafi Saturday reviewed the Arab, African as well as international issues of common interest during a phone conversation, Libyan official sources said in Tripoli. [PANA]
Monday, 28 October, 2002: Lebanon's President Emile Lahoud proposed the adoption of "a series of steps" to ensure Arab solidarity, in a telephone call with Arab League chief Amr Mussa over Libya's threat to pull out of the league. Lahoud, current chairman of the Arab summit, "proposed a series of steps that should be adopted ...to assert that solidarity". [AFP]

   
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Sunday, 27 October, 2002: Libya on Saturday agreed to put its request to quit the 22-member pan-Arab forum, Arab League, to a discussion by Arab leaders, Egypt's official MENA news agency quoted Arab League chief Amr Moussa as saying. Moussa made the remarks after talks with Libyan leader Mu'ammar al-Qadhafi on the issue. [Xinhua]
Sunday, 27 October, 2002: Libya severed telecommunications with the outside world Saturday in what it called a Day of Mourning for the victims of Italian occupation. People who tried to phone Libya received a recorded message that said: "As part of the mourning over the victims of the savage crimes committed by the Italian fascists against the Libyan people, all international telecommunications are to be halted today". The official Libyan news agency, JANA, said Libya would also be closing its airports and ports for the Day of Mourning. [AP]
Sunday, 27 October, 2002: Libya wants to quit the Arab League in protest at what it says is the failure of Arab states to take a stronger stance on any United States attack on Iraq and the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, the League said on Saturday. League Secretary-General Amr Moussa told reporters Libya insisted on withdrawing from the pan-Arab body to express its anger at the way Arab countries were confronting the threats facing the region. The decision prompted Moussa to travel to Libya to persuade its leader Qadhafi on reversing his decision. [Reuters]


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Saturday, 26 October, 2002: Libya pulling out of the Arab League is not going to make it more, or less, effective in dealing with political issues. The Arab League is about much more than the Palestinians or politics; it is about a pan-Arab vision. It is as much social, economic and cultural as it is political. It is all very fine for Libya to look at its African links, but it cannot be at the expense of its Arabness. Quitting the League will not diminish it or the Arab world; it is Libya that will be diminished - and it is a move that will not be popular with the Libyan people. [Arab News]
Saturday, 26 October, 2002: Libya's bid to withdraw from the Arab League (AL) stems from its dissatisfaction with the general Arab stance on key matters, AL Secretary General Amr Mussa said early Friday. "We think that what Libya has done is a sort of protest against the Arab position in general," Mussa said. "I will study the request to withdraw ...and I am in contact with Libyan officials," he said. On Thursday, an official at Libya's African Unity Ministry said Tripoli had "informed the AL of its intention to withdraw from that organization." [Tehran Times]
Saturday, 26 October, 2002: The Russian company GAZ is considering opening a car plant in Libya, the Ruspromavto auto holding that controls GAZ said Friday. The Libyan plant would produce Gazel model light trucks, Ruspromavto said. No other details were available. [Tass]
Friday, 25 October, 2002: Arab League head Amr Mussa said Thursday he would make an "urgent" visit to Libya, hours after Tripoli announced it intended to pull out of the 22-member pan-Arab grouping. This is not the first time Libyan leader Mu'ammar al-Qadhafi has threatened to pull out of the league. He did so in March, saying the league had failed the Palestinians in their conflict with Israel. Libya also considered quitting in 1998 because of the "defeatist" attitude of Arab states towards the sanctions imposed on Tripoli over the Lockerbie bombing. [AFP]
Friday, 25 October, 2002: Libya asked to withdraw from the Arab League on Thursday, an Arab League spokesman said. No reason was immediately given for the decision. But leader Mu'ammar al-Qadhafi in September called on Libyans to quit the league to protest against what he called "official Arab cowardice" in the face of Israel and the US. Egyptian Foreign Minister Ahmed Maher told reporters he had received a phone call from Libyan Minister for African Affairs Ali Triki who said Libya took the step to express frustration with "the Arab position". [Reuters]
Friday, 25 October, 2002: Libya, Nigeria and South Africa have agreed to invest US$10 million each in Sierra Leone, the country's President Ahmed Kabbah said in a national broadcast on Wednesday. "Libyan experts are in S. Africa to work out how the money will be spent," Kabbah said. "Libya will provide electricty generating equipment," he said, adding that experts were due in Freetown within the next two weeks. Kabbah returned on Sunday from a 10-day visit to Libya. He did not provide details on the Nigerian and South African money. [SAPA/AFP]
Friday, 25 October, 2002: Libyan leader Mu'ammar al-Qadhafi has pardoned 49 Egyptians who were jailed in Libya and allowed them to go home. Thursday's edition of the daily Al-Ahram did not say why or when the Egyptians had been jailed. It said they had been among prisoners amnestied on last month's anniversary of the Libyan revolution which brought Qadhafi to power. [AFP]
Friday, 25 October, 2002: Egypt have been named as hosts of the 2006 African Nations Cup finals, securing the vote from the Confederation of African Football's executive committee. Egypt were comfortable winners in their bid to stage the event for a record fourth time, polling seven votes from the 11 of 13 committee members who were present at the meeting. Libya received two votes while Algeria and the Ivory Coast earned one each. [Reuters]
Thursday, 24 October, 2002: Italian Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi will make a one-day visit to Libya next week for talks with Libyan leader Mu'ammar al-Qadhafi. No other details about the visit, scheduled for Monday, October 28, were provided. The visit by Berlusconi, who also serves as foreign minister, follows one to Tripoli in December 1999 by then-premier Massimo d'Alema. Libya's foreign investment company, Lafico, has extensive holdings in Italian companies including 2.6 percent of struggling carmaker Fiat and 7.5 percent of soccer club Juventus. [Reuters]
Thursday, 24 October, 2002: France and Libya said Tuesday they had reached a settlement over the 1989 bombing of a French airliner over Niger, with Libya agreeing to pay reparations in accordance with decisions by the French courts. The two governments said in a joint statement they had "agreed to do what is necessary to reach a definitive resolution of this affair". The statement was issued at the close of a two-day conference in Paris attended by French Foreign Minister Dominique de Villepin and his Libyan counterpart Abdelrahman Shalgam. [Reuters]
Thursday, 24 October, 2002: Libya promised to increase the amount of compensation paid to the families of 57 of the victims of the 1989 bombing of a French airliner over Niger, but lawyers for the French group SOS said it was "scandalised" by the offer which it said should be extended to all 170 families. SOS is also demanding that the six men convicted for the attack -- all of whom are at liberty in Libya -- should be imprisoned or sent to France to face a new trial. Libya has paid US$31.2 million in compensation to families, insurance companies and Air France. [AFP]
Thursday, 24 October, 2002: Egypt are tipped to be named as hosts of the 2006 African Cup, which is Africa's qualifying tournament for the World Cup to be held in Germany. Egypt head a list of four countries bidding to host the tournament but are expected to win ahead of Algeria and the Ivory Coast, where there is political uncertainty, and Libya, who lack facilities. [Reuters]
Wednesday, 23 October, 2002: The foreign minister of Libya said Tuesday that he is looking for an agreement "within months" on the amount of compensation Tripoli will offer families of those killed in the Pan Am bombing over Lockerbie, Scotland, 14 years ago. Foreign Minister Abdel-Rahman Shalgam insisted, however, that Libyan authorities "will never accept responsibility" for the Dec. 21, 1988, bombing. Shalgam was in Paris for a two-day gathering of a French-Libyan commission that was meeting for the first time in 20 years. [AP]
Wednesday, 23 October, 2002: France's Schneider Electric will supply the power management system, medium voltage switchgear and transformers to two major oil sites in Libya. The system will enable gas shipments to Italy. On completion in 2004, 10,000 million cubic meters of natural gas will be delivered to Italy annually through an underwater pipeline linking Libya to Italy. The gas will be exported to Italy via Sicily through a 32-inch underwater pipeline. [Al-Bawaba]
Wednesday, 23 October, 2002: Two United Nations arms control experts conducted a brief assessment of weapons smuggling in Somalia, visiting a southern town to gauge the effectiveness of a decade-old U.N. arms embargo on the Horn of Africa nation. The experts were told most of the weapons in Somalia came from Ethiopia, Eritrea, Libya, the US and Yemen. [AP]
Wednesday, 23 October, 2002: Muslims in the Liberian capital Monrovia and other parts of the country are expected to benefit from US$30,000 worth of relief supplies in rice and clothes provided by the International Islamic Call Society based in Libya. This was disclosed last Friday by Mr. Mohammed Talbi, the Libyan Ambassador in Monrovia. [The News]
Tuesday, 22 October, 2002: French President Chirac has met with Libyan Foreign Minister Abdelrahman Shalgam on Monday. The two discussed the question of the bomb attack of a DC-10 plane of the French airline UTA over Niger in 1989, the French presidential office said. Implicated in the bombing, Libya was sanctioned by the UN and accused by France of being reluctant in pursuing the perpetrators of the crime and compensating the victims, said the office. [Xinhua]
Tuesday, 22 October, 2002: The foreign ministers of France and Libya opened a two-day conference Monday aimed at rebuilding ties hobbled by terrorism. But some 100 protesters who lost loved ones in the bombing of a French airliner that was blamed on Libyans said justice should outweigh diplomacy. Six Libyans, including a brother-in-law of Libyan leader Qadhafi, were convicted in the bombing of a French passenger jet, and have never been extradited. [AP]
Tuesday, 22 October, 2002: The Tanzanian government is considering opening an embassy in Tripoli, local newspaper Daily News quoted an official statement as reporting Monday. The statement said the decision was made by Tanzanian President Benjamin Mkapa during his visit to Libya last week as a response to a request from Libyan leader Qadhafi. [Xinhua]
Tuesday, 22 October, 2002: Oil exploration hotspot Libya intends to join a growing list of OPEC exporters seeking a bigger share of the cartel's output as its capacity grows. Abdulhafidh Zlitni, the head of Libya's national oil company head, said Libya would ask for a larger share of the group's ceiling as foreign investment in Libya takes off. [Reuters]
   

Monday, 21 October, 2002: Egypt's Prime Minister Atef Ebeid last week received Ahmed Abdelkarim, the chairman of the Libyan International Investment Company. Egyptian Petroleum Minister Sameh Fahmi told reporters that "Ebeid discussed with the Libyan official the broadlines for a strategic plan to boost cooperation in the fields of oil, gas and petroleum products." "Ebeid also reviewed the steps pertaining to the construction of a pipeline to pump Egyptian gas to Libya and another pipeline to transfer Libyan petroleum products to Egypt," Fahmi said. "Investments in the two pipelines are put at $ 300 million," he said. [Arabic News]

Sunday, 20 October, 2002: The International Monetary Fund (IMF) Managing Director Horst Koehler on Saturday urged Maghreb leaders to step up the integration of their economies to shore up free market reforms and spur more growth. Koehler was speaking at a news conference in Tunis. "I would continue ...to give my advice that the leaders of the region, and I include Mr Qadhafi (of Libya) in this, should sit together and define a policy for better cooperation to promote growth and job creation for their people," he said. Koehler visited Mauritania, Algeria and Tunisia and said he would visit Morocco. He did not say when or, if he would also visit Libya. [Reuters]
Saturday, 19 October, 2002: French Foreign Minister Dominique de Villepin traveled to Tripoli Friday in a bid to improve relations with the Libyan government, implicated in the bombing of a French airliner over the Sahara in 1989. In meetings with Libyan leader Mu'ammar al-Qadhafi, Foreign Minister Abdelrahman Shalgam (photo/right) and African affairs minister Ali al-Treiki (photo/left), de Villepin discussed improving bilateral relations and international issues of common concern, the official Libyan news agency JANA reported. [AP]
Saturday, 19 October, 2002: An avenue in Banjul, Gambia, that was named after Colonel Mu'ammar al-Qadhafi has been changed to bear its former name, Marina Parade. Banjul's Mayor expounded on the reason behind the name change, saying they were bowing to popular calls for the reintroduction of the old colonial name. Meanwhile sources have hinted that a strain in relations between Libya and Gambia might have caused the name change. Libya recently paid the debts of 15 African countries to the African Union excluding Gambia. [The Independent]
Saturday, 19 October, 2002: Two bombs ripped through crowded shopping centers in the southern Philippines yesterday, killing six persons and wounding nearly 150 others. The Philippine military blamed the bombings on a group with ties to Osama bin Laden. "We are looking at the group of Qadhafi Janjalani as primarily responsible for the incident," said Colonel Servando. Qadhafi Janjalani is the younger brother of Abdurajak Janjalani, founder of the the Abu Sayyaf group. Abdurajak Janjalani studied in Libya and Saudi Arabia. [The Washington Times]
Saturday, 19 October, 2002: Abdelhafidh al-Zlitni, Libya's acting oil minister, said on Friday there could be room for OPEC to raise quotas if third quarter demand growth continues. "There are signs of some growth ...if this is sustained then there may be room for an increase in quotas," he told a news conference. Al-Zlitni (photo) said that he was holding discussions with Royal Dutch/Shell and BG Group, among other companies, to sign exploration and production agreements in Libya. [Reuters]
Saturday, 19 October, 2002: A two-day conference that brought together Ministers and representatives of member Governments of the Western Mediterranean Dialogue, the "5+5"(Algeria, France, Italy, Libya, Malta, Mauritania, Morocco, Portugal, Spain and Tunisia) ended yesterday in Tunis. The Ministers approved an ambitious "Declaration of Tunis" to guide future cooperation. The event was organised by Tunisia in cooperation with the International Organization for Migration (IOM) and with the support of Italy and others. [IOM]
Saturday, 19 October, 2002: The first African forum of non-governmental organisations and civil society institutions is currently underway in Tripoli. Numerous African NGOs from Burkina, Mali, Niger, Zimbabwe in addition to Libya are participating in the forum which is sponsored by al-Qadhafi foundation for charitable associations in collaboration with the co-ordination office of the revolutionary committees movement and the Arab -African NGOs Forum. [JANA]
Saturday, 19 October, 2002: The Canadian men's Soccer (Football) team will play Libya in February and Estonia in March, the Canadian Soccer Association said Friday. Canada will play in Tripoli on February 12 and Tallinn in March 29. Estonia is currently No. 68 in the FIFA world rankings while Libya is No. 104. Canada is No. 70. [The Toronto Star]
Saturday, 19 October, 2002: Ivory Coast's football officials said they are not abandoning their bid to host the 2006 African Cup, despite the political unrest. On 24 October, Caf will announce the winning bid. Egypt, Algeria and Libya are the other nations in contention. [Addis Tribune]

Friday, 18 October, 2002: French Foreign Minister Dominique de Villepin is expected in Tripoli Friday on a two-day visit to Libya, official sources said in the Libyan capital Thursday. [PANA]
Friday, 18 October, 2002: In Zimbabwe, three weeks of fuel shortages ended on Monday after the government reportedly used all its available foreign currency to pay Libya for fuel. The fuel was stored in tanks controlled by the Libyans on the outskirts of the Zimbabwean capital Harare, and they only released it after receiving payment in foreign currency. [UN-IRIN]
Friday, 18 October, 2002: Libyan Leader Mu'ammar al-Qadhafi and Sudanese President Omar Al-Bashir, Thursday reviewed recent developments towards ending Sudan's long war and how to consolidate peace and security in the country, official Libyan sources said in Tripoli. [PANA]
Friday, 18 October, 2002: Th Oasis of Houn, in the heart of the Libyan desert, 600 km south of Tripoli, this week hosted the seventh edition of the spring international tourist festival, which brought together artists, folk and musical bands from several regions of the country. [PANA]
Thursday, 17 October, 2002: The families of seven Americans killed in a 1989 bombing of a French airliner over the Sahara Desert sued Libya Wednesday for more than $3 billion. The lawsuit sues the Libyan government and its leader, Mu'ammar al-Qadhafi, over their role in the bombing of a UTA passenger jet en route to Paris from Congo. The lawsuit was filed in the federal district court in Washington. It comes as France attempts to increase its diplomatic links with Libya. French Foreign Minister Dominique de Villepin is to visit Tripoli on Friday. [AP]
Thursday, 17 October, 2002: The families of seven Americans killed in a UTA passenger jet bombing sued Libya Wednesday for more than $3 billion. In 1999, a Paris court convicted six Libyans, including Libyan leader Mu'ammar al-Qadhafi's brother-in-law, in absentia for the bombing and sentenced them to life in prison. The six were never extradited to France, but Libya did agree to a court order to transfer $33 million to France to compensate the victims. [AP]
Thursday, 17 October, 2002: France is increasing its diplomatic links with Libya, infuriating families of those who died in the bombing of a French airliner over the Sahara in an attack that was blamed on six Libyans. SOS Attentats, an advocacy group for families of terror victims, says France should not improve ties until Libya hands over six people convicted by a Paris court for the 1989 bombing of a French airliner. The group plans a protest Monday during a visit by Libyan Foreign Minister Abdel-Rahman Shalgam to Paris. [AP]
Thursday, 17 October, 2002: Libya's national team could face Caf sanctions for confronting match officials after their 1-2 loss to Swaziland in Mbabane on Sunday. Angry Libyan players reportedly caused a stir immediately after the encounter, accusing the Angolan match officials of favouring their Swazi opponents. Caf officials in Cairo confirmed that they have received a copy of the referee's report which described the post-match fracas. [BBC]

Wednesday, 16 October, 2002: Ministers and representatives of member governments of the Western Mediterranean Dialogue 5+5 are slated for a meeting on October 16-17 in Tunis to discuss development of cooperative approaches to migration in the region. The 5+5 dialogue was launched in 1990 in Rome and its member countries include Algeria, France, Italy, Libya, Malta, Mauritania, Morocco, Portugal, Spain and Tunisia. [Xinhua]
Wednesday, 16 October, 2002: The Czech government was believed to have sold 2 million pounds of plastic explosives to Libya, which in turn has supplied terrorists. Officials say less than a pound of plastic explosives can blow a hole in an airplane - in 1988, plastic explosive brought down Pan Am Flight 103 over Lockerbie, Scotland, killing 170 people. Plastic explosive were also used in the October 2000 bombing of the USS Cole in Yemen, killing 17 U.S. sailors. [AP]
Wednesday, 16 October, 2002: Sources in the Sudan's rebels movement led by John Garang said that Libya is making mediations between the government and the movement to release all Sudanese war prisoners. Seif al-Islam, son of Libyan leader Qadhafi, sent a message, in his capacity as the chairman of the Qadhafi charity society asking for the release of government soldiers held by the movement in return for Libya's support for developmental economic projects in southern Sudan. The sources added that Garang refused the Libyan offer. [Arabic News]
Wednesday, 16 October, 2002: The Ivorian crisis and simmering tension between Sudan and Eritrea were the focus of contacts Libyan authorities had Tuesday with their South African and Nigerian counterparts, official sources indicated in Tripoli. [PANA]
Wednesday, 16 October, 2002: There have been rewards for the Africans that have supported Sepp Blatter's in his win over Issa Hayatou in the Fifa presidential election in May. South African M. Oliphant has been appointed to the 2006 World Cup organising committee, while Mauritania's M. Cheiguer has been appointed to the 2003 Under-17 world championship. Libya's Saadi al-Qadhafi was appointed to the Fifa Club World Championship organising committee. [BBC]
Tuesday, 15 October, 2002: A British judge has gagged the British media from reporting the juicier bits of courtroom evidence of the former MI5 spy David Shayler's trial. That includes his alleged proof that British secret service paid $280,000 - at current exchange rates - for al-Qaida terrorists to assassinate Libya's leader, Mu'ammar al-Qadhafi. Shayler's trial is expected to begin this week and any of his evidence relating to sensitive security or intelligence matters will be off limits to the public and any that has been already published will be withdrawn. [UPI]
   

Monday, 14 October, 2002: Thousands of Libyans marched Sunday in Tripoli to denounce "American and Zionist hegemony" and "humiliation of Arabs by the US and Israel". [PANA]
Monday, 14 October, 2002: Swaziland staged a dramatic recovery to upset Libya 2-1 at the Somhlolo stadium on Sunday. Defender Gamedze and winger Nhleko scored in the last nine minutes as Swaziland fought back in a dramatic finale. Libya's Salah converted a first half penalty in a game preceded by much tension and persistent complaints about Swaziland's treatment of the Libyan players. The result is a major setback for coach Scoglio, who had ambitions of helping the Libyan side to a first Nations Cup finals appearance in more than three decades. [BBC]
Monday, 14 October, 2002: Libyan secretary of the general corporation of radio stations met this evening in Tripoli with Nasir Dini, Comoros information minister. The two sides discussed ways for strengthening media cooperation between the two countries. [BBC-MS]
Monday, 14 October, 2002: French La Roche publishing house has signed an agreement yesterday, granting itself the right of publishing the romantic novel "Zabibah wal Malek" (Zabibah and the King), said to be penned by Iraqi President Saddam Hussein. Saddam is the second Arab ruler to publish a novel after Libyan President Mu'ammar al-Qadhafi. [Al-Bawaba]
Sunday, 13 October, 2002: Libya has agreed to lift the ban on Indian tea. This is indicated in the agreed minutes of the eighth session of the Indo-Libyan joint commission which concluded in New Delhi on Friday. Indian Minister for commerce Raman Singh and Libyan assistant secretary for cooperation affairs Saad Mujber signed the agreement. Further, the two sides have agreed to intensify cooperation in power, oil and gas (hydro-carbons). [The Financial Express]
Sunday, 13 October, 2002: Syria's President Bashar al-Asad last week in Damascus received Ahmad Qaddaf ad-Dam, special envoy of Libyan Leader Mu'ammar al-Qadhafi. Qaddaf ad-Dam conveyed a message to al-Asad from al-Qadhafi concerning current events in the Middle East. The meeting was attended by Libya's ambassador Juma al-Mahdi al-Fazzani. [Arabic News]


Human Rights Solidarity: The Suffering Of Al-Jadak Family

Saturday, 12 October, 2002: A showdown is looming over the New Programme for Africa's Development (Nepad) when African finance, economy and planning ministers meet next week in Johannesburg, S. Africa. While other African governments have endorsed Nepad, regimes like those in Zimbabwe and Libya have rejected it labelling it an "imperialist" programme. The meeting, which was organised by the UN, is scheduled for Oct. 19/21. [Zimbabwe Independent]
Saturday, 12 October, 2002: Swazi police were called out to quell a demonstration by Libyan soccer players angry with the location of their hotel for Sunday's African Nations Cup qualifier. The Libyans stopped their bus and held a roadside demonstration to complain about the length of the journey to the hotel, more than 100 km from the airport, the Times of Swaziland said. Police were called to the scene to persuade the team to continue with the journey. [New Vision]
Saturday, 12 October, 2002: Italian police have dismantled a suspected al-Qaeda cell and arrested four Tunisians who were allegedly planning an attack on unspecified targets in Europe. Another Tunisian was seized in Malta, while a sixth suspect from Libya was in detention in Britain facing unrelated charges. A seventh Tunisian wanted for questioning is on the run. [Reuters]
Saturday, 12 October, 2002: India is in talks with several countries to secure alternative supply of crude oil to prepare itself for supply disruptions if there is war in the Middle East. "We are looking at countries like Venezuela, Libya and Angola. We went to Brazil recently and held some discussions there also," India's petroleum secretary B. K. Chaturvedi said on Friday. [Reuters]
Saturday, 12 October, 2002: After a six-month moratorium, tensions re-emerged this week between the Zimbabwe government and the powerful labour movement as the country's economic hardships worsened. Political analysts warned that unless Libyan leader Mu'ammar al-Qadhafi unlocked the oil taps to Harare, his ally Zimbabwean President Mugabe could wake up to find the unthinkable happening: the downfall of the 78-year-old leader. [Financial Gazette]
Friday, 11 October, 2002: A row broke out Wednesday evening when the Libyan national football team, which is in Swaziland for a Cup of Nations qualifying tie, protested against being lodged 100 km from the venue of the Sunday match. [PANA]
Friday, 11 October, 2002: Libyan leader Mu'ammar al-Qadhafi called on the rebel Movement for Democracy and Justice in Chad (MJDT) to lay down its weapons, in an interview broadcast. "I call on the brothers of the MDJT to lay down their arms and rejoin the peace camp," Qadhafi told Chad national radio. An attack by rebels on government troops Thursday dashed hopes of a negotiated peace settlement following the death of MDJT leader Youssouf Togoimi. [AFP]
Friday, 11 October, 2002: A statement issued by the Lebanese presidency said that Ahmad Qaddaf al-Dam conveyed a message to Lebanese President Emil Lahoud from Libyan Leader Mu'ammar al-Qadhafi concerning Iraq and the Palestinian territories. Qaddaf al-Dam told reporters that col. Qadhafi wanted to brief the Lebanese president, whose country presides over the current rotating presidency of the Arab League on the results of his contacts. [Arabic News]
Friday, 11 October, 2002: Both India and Libya have expressed the desire to enhance bilateral commercial and industrial co-operation given that the present level of trade and business is way below the actual potential. A Libyan delegation led by Mr Saad Mujber, Libyan minister of state for International Cooperation, is visiting india. [The Financial Express]

Thursday, 10 October, 2002: The Middle East and North Africa region faces one of the highest rates of unemployment in the world and must meet the challenge by creating 6.5 million jobs annually, experts told an economic forum in Jordan. A report by senior World Bank economists outlined the problem to the Fourth Mediterranean Development Forum (MDF4) which is under way in Amman. Unemployment levels in Algeria, Libya, Yemen and Syria stand at 30 per cent, followed by 20 per cent in Lebanon, Morocco, Iran and Tunisia. [AFP]
Thursday, 10 October, 2002: Shipbuilder Izar has launched another floating production storage and offloading unit into the sea and its first under its new name after merging with the Bazan military shipyard in Spain. Claude Benezit, director of exploration and production for TotalFinaElf in Africa, was the godmother to the new unit, which was christened Farwah and is destined to operate on Libya's offshore field development in block 137b in the Mediterranean sea. [PBI]
Thursday, 10 October, 2002: Could this be another way of sharing the national cake, or is it one of those outdated traditions Africa is better off without? Last week, 34-year-old King Mswati of Swaziland took an 18-year-girl for his 10th wife. It is not just in East Africa where the heads of state wield enormous powers. Ex-Libyan national team coach Scoglio got sacked because he refused to name Al-Saadi , Mu'ammar al-Qadhafi's son, in the national team. [The East African]

Wednesday, 9 October, 2002: Strong floods from heavy rains in Libya during the past four days resulted in the drowning of three persons and heavy material losses. Sources at the general commission for water in Libya said the amounts of water which were held in Wadi al-Mjeinin dam, reached more than 7.495 million cubic meters, and some 5.495 million cubic meters of water were held in Wadi Kaam dam. [Arabic News]
Wednesday, 9 October, 2002: Eliza Manningham-Buller is taking over as UK's spy chief this week, becoming only the second woman to head counter-espionage service MI5. Manningham-Buller was deeply involved in investigating the downing of PanAm flight 103 over the Scottish town of Lockerbie in December 1988 which killed 270 people. Libyan Abdelbaset al-Megrahi is serving life in Glasgow's Barlinnie jail for the bombing. [Reuters]
Wednesday, 9 October, 2002: Libya's national team is expected in Swaziland Wednesday for its encounter with the Swazi national side in an African Cup of Nations qualifier on Saturday. [PANA]
Wednesday, 9 October, 2002: Libya's giant side Al-Ittihad Football Club invited the best club in Uganda for an international friendly game later this year. SC Villa, who have won the league title five years in a row are likely favourites to win the trip. The invitation did not specify whether the hosts will cater for all the costs including transportation. [The Monitor]

Tuesday, 8 October, 2002: Iran has confirmed that Libya killed Lebanese Shiite leader Imam Mousa al-Sadr who disappeared mysteriously along with two of his companions during a trip to Tripoli in 1978, a Lebanese Shiite group said Monday. "The Brigades of Mousa al-Sadr," said, "the bitter truth" was finally revealed. "We became certain without doubt that Qadhafi and his followers committed the ugliest crime.. when they treacherously killed the Imam leader and his companions," the group said in a statement published by An-Nahar newspaper. [UPI]
Tuesday, 8 October, 2002: The British government Monday announced a series of measures aimed at making Britain less attractive to refugees. Home Secretary David Blunkett, disclosing the changes in an article for The Times newspaper, said the revisions will include a clampdown on would-be immigrants who are given "exceptional leave to remain", because the system is now being abused by economic migrants. He said that effective immediately, this form of special exemption will no longer apply routinely to arrivals from Liberia, Libya and Somalia. [UPI]
Tuesday, 8 October, 2002: Al-Saadi al-Qadhafi, son of Libyan leader Mu'ammar al-Qadhafi, claims he will be the leader of African football in the next five years. The 28-year-old Qadhafi's claim that he could be the next president of the Confederation of African Football (CAF) is the first confirmation that he is ready to challenge Issa Hayatou for the leadership. "I believe I can put all my experience and international relations at the disposal of the CAF and the game of football in general," he told Saudi Arabian newspaper Okaz. [BBC]
Tuesday, 8 October, 2002: Organizers of this year's Miss Internet, to be held in Libya on Oct. 22, have announced that renowned Italian fashion designer, Roberto Cavelli, will play an integral part in the event. Amr Harfoush, organizer of the event in cooperation with several private sector parties in Libya, told the daily, Al Bayan, that "Participants will only appear in decent clothes, but the designer is willing to come up with revolutionary designs inspired by the military suits in Libya in addition to other designs, portraying images of the Libyan president". [Al-Bawaba]
Tuesday, 8 October, 2002: David Shayler, the former British M15 officer branded a traitor by the government, is due to take on the legal establishment today, as his trial opens in London. Shayler, who faces six years imprisonment for breaching the Official Secrets Act, will represent himself for part of the landmark case. Shayler, who made other allegations for which he was not charged, including a claim that M16 was involved in a plot to assassinate the Libyan leader, Col. Qadhafi, will argue that he is only guilty of "exposing wrongdoing". [The Scotsman]
Tuesday, 8 October, 2002: Construction proceeds from overseas projects in arrears exceed US$1.62 billion, of which 71.8 per cent are five years overdue, according to documents provided to a parliamentary audit panel by Korea's Ministry of Construction Friday. Iraq owed the largest amount with US$1.01 billion followed by Libya with US$329 million, Saudi Arabia with US$98 million, Malaysia with US$89 million and Thailand with US$74 million. [Asia Pulse]
Tuesday, 8 October, 2002: The U.S. Embassy in Riyadh has advised Americans that the Saudi government may subject them to fingerprinting as part of their visa or entry process, as the U.S. is doing to some foreign visitors in the wake of Sept. 11. In announcing the new U.S. rules in June, Attorney General Ashcroft said nearly all visitors from Iraq, Iran, Libya, Sudan and Syria would face the new scrutiny. That was later expanded to include men from Saudi Arabia. [AP]



Monday, 7 October, 2002: A shadowy Lebanese Shi'ite Muslim group threatened vengeance on Libyan leader Mu'ammar al-Qadhafi on Sunday over the disappearance of a charismatic cleric 24 years ago. Lebanese Shi'ites have long believed Libya kidnapped and killed Imam Musa al-Sadr during a visit to Libya in 1978. Libya says Sadr left the country safely. The Shi'ite Sadr Brigades said proof of Libya's involvement had reached them recently from Iran. "We shall avenge the blood of the martyred imam... We shall strike without mercy the interests of Qadhafi and his men in every place on the face of the earth in revenge," the group said in a statement. [Reuters]
Monday, 7 October, 2002: The women of Ghadames (photo), an oasis town south-west of Tripoli, Libya's capital city, wear their brightest, most beautiful traditional dresses to sing and dance until dawn during a week-long festival. The men, not to be outdone, come either in complete warrior outfits or in traditional clothes topped with vibrant coloured overshawls. They too have their fair share of fun, displaying their prowess in folk dances. The rejoicings mark a week-long folk-life festival, an event usually held in late October as part of a programme to attract tourists. [Bernama]
Monday, 7 October, 2002: Sudanese President Omar Hassan Al-Bashir has briefed the Libyan leader Col. Mu'ammar al-Qadhafi about military attacks allegedly launched by John Garang's Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA) from Eritrean territory. [PANA]
Monday, 7 October, 2002: Chadian President Idriss Deby held talks in Tripoli on Saturday with Libyan leader Mu'ammar al-Qadhafi just two days after a spectacular raid on a key air base dashed government hopes of a swift resumption of peace talks with northern rebels. Deby's visit to Tripoli came less than a fortnight after the death in a Tripoli hospital of the leader of the rebel Movement for Democracy and Justice in Chad (MJDT), Youssouf Togoimi, whom Ndjamena had regarded as the key obstacle to implementation of a Libyan-brokered peace deal. [Al-Bawaba]
Sunday, 6 October, 2002: The Minister of Foreign Affairs of Russia Igor Ivanov informed Libyan Foreign Minister Abdelrahman Shalgam (photo) about "the efforts the Russian side has been making to ensure earliest return of the international inspectors to Iraq and to resolve the problems which have emerged by political means on the basis of the existing resolutions of the United Nations Security Council". [Pravda]
Sunday, 6 October, 2002: President Idriss Deby of Chad arrived in Tripoli Saturday morning on a working visit, official sources in the Libyan capital confirmed. [PANA]
Sunday, 6 October, 2002: Sources at the General Peoples Committee for Justice and Security said that 238 Nigerian nationals who were prosecuted for committing crimes in Libya have been handed over to the Nigerian authorities in order to spend their sentences in their country. [JANA]
Saturday, 5 October, 2002: In the wake of rumours that Libya had turned off its fuel supply taps to Zimbabwe because the government had defaulted in its payments, motorists heaved a sigh of relief at the news that a new deal had been signed to ensure uninterrupted supplies of fuel. The two countries had renewed the US$360 million agreement that had seen Libya supplying 70 percent of Zimbabwe's fuel supply needs since August last year. [The Daily News]
Saturday, 5 October, 2002: Dolci Extrusion, the Italian company which manufactures machines for the plastic-materials industry, has been sold by Finnish telecoms parts manufacturer Nokia to Italian group Bielloni Castello for 3m euros. Dolci has received a 1.8m euro order from a Libyan company and another one, worth 1m euros, from a company in China. [FT Information]
Friday, 4 October, 2002: Israeli troops have rehearsed a military operation to expel Palestinian President Yasser Arafat by air to a distant country. Israeli security sources confirmed to Reuters that a mock operation took place several weeks ago. Local television reports said the country could be Libya, or another Arab state with which Israel has no ties. [Reuters]
Friday, 4 October, 2002: French budget airline Air Lib announced Wednesday it would start direct flights between Paris and the Libyan capital of Tripoli starting Tuesday next week. The company will offer two flights a week, on Tuesday and Sunday. Air Lib said it hoped the service would attract businessmen as well as give a boost to tourism in Libya. [AFP]
Friday, 4 October, 2002: African legal experts are meeting in Libya within the ambit of a committee in charge of drafting of the Constitutional Law of the African Court of Justice. [PANA]
Friday, 4 October, 2002: Libya's Minister for Water Resources, Abdelmajid Alquood, on Thursday delivered a special message from Col. Qadhafi to President Moi of Kenya. [PANA]
World Organization Against Torture: Libya; Torture And Arbitrary Execution

Thursday, 3 October, 2002: The International Secretariat of The World Organization Against Torture (OMCT) has received information from a reliable source concerning the arbitrary execution of Mr. Hussein Seif Salem Aljadik and torture of his brother, Mr. Abdelwahhab Sief Salem Aljadik and Mr. Mohamed Massuad Izbeda, the latter of whom died as a result in Libya. In January 1997, Major Khalil Salem Aljadik [photo/right], Mr. Aljadik's uncle, was executed along with Col. Miftah Garrum [photo/left], Col. Mustafa al-Kikli, Major Ramadhan Al-Ihury [photo/middle], Mr. Saad Izbeda and Mr. Alwafi Mbaya. They were all from the same town of Beni-Ouleed and belonged to the same tribe. There are strong reasons to believe the decision to execute Mr. Aljadik is a part of a collective punishment process against the Aljadik family and the city of Beni-Ouleed. [OMCT]
Thursday, 3 October, 2002: Libya has cut the official selling prices (OSPs) for most of its oil grades in October by 10 cents, with key crude Es-Sider at Dated Brent -50 cents, trading sources said on Wednesday. Bouri was steady at Urals -$1.00, the sources said. [Reuters]
Thursday, 3 October, 2002: A meeting was held last night between the Libyan ambassador in Rome and the director of the Mediterranean affairs in the Italian foreign ministry, within the pattern of implementing the Libyan Italian declaration, signed in Rome in July 1998. [JANA]
Wednesday, 2 October, 2002: Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak returned home Tuesday afternoon after ending a short visit to Libya, the official MENA news agency reported. During the visit, Mubarak held talks with Libyan leader Mu'ammar al-Qadhafi "on the latest developments in the Palestinian lands and the Iraqi issue," MENA said. [Xinhua]
Wednesday, 2 October, 2002: Iran has launched the first export project of its intermediate-range missile (Shihab-3) . United States officials said Iran has signed a multi-year deal with Libya for the export of technology, know-how and training in the Shihab-3. The American officials said North Korea will participate in the project. [Middle East NewsLine]
Wednesday, 2 October, 2002: Central African Republic (CAR) authorities have denied an attack on Chad by Libyan troops stationed in CAR. "The Office of the President requires from Chadian authorities to provide evidence about the presence of Libyan troops in Bouar and about the preparation of a Libyan attack against Chad from there," P. Ndouba, the CAR presidential spokesman, said in a communique read on sate-run Radio Centrafrique on Monday. [UN-IRIN]
Wednesday, 2 October, 2002: Tropical Africa Bank in Uganda now has a new general manager. Mohammed Aki Wahra from the Libyan Arab Foreign Bank replaces Kamel el-Khallas who has been manager at the bank since 1996. The Bank is jointly owned by the Government of Libya, the Libyan Arab Foreign Bank and the Government of Uganda. [The Monitor]
Wednesday, 2 October, 2002: Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak arrived in Libya on Tuesday for talks on a possible U.S. strike on Iraq and the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, the Libyan state news agency Jana reported. Jana said Mubarak and Libyan leader Qadhafi (photo) began their discussions shortly after Mubarak arrived in Syrte. Mubarak's visit follows his talks on Monday with Syrian President Bashar al-Asad. Last week, Mubarak discussed the Iraq issue with Saudi Crown Prince Abdullah. [Reuters]
Tuesday, 1 October, 2002: Seven foreigners detained in Bangladesh last week on suspicion of trafficking children have been released due to lack of evidence, police said Monday. Police arrested the seven men - four from Yemen, and one each from Algeria, Libya and Sudan - late Tuesday. They were identified as workers for al-Haramain Islamic Foundation. The investigators were unable to find any evidence to prove the suspicions against the seven. [AP]
Tuesday, 1 October, 2002: The recipients of this year's US $250,000 Qadhafi Human Rights Award: Mamadou Diya - Roger Garoudy - Ali Sidgi Abdelgader - Rajab abu-Dabous - Mohammed Ahmed el-Sharif - Khalifa al-Talisi - Ali Mustafa el-Misrati - Ali Fahmi Khashim - Nadeem el-Bitar - John Zigler - Ahmed Ibrahim el-Fagih - Ibrahim el-Koni - Mohammed el-Fitouri. [JANA]
Tuesday, 1 October, 2002: Nigerian striker Victor Ikpeba is set for a move to Libyan club al-Ittihad Tripoli. The club, which is owned by the son of Libyan leader Mu'ammar al-Qadhafi, will acquire Ikpeba from German club Borussia Dortmund. At al-Ittihad he will link up with Cameroon striker Patrick Mboma, who left Italian club Parma for Libya after the World Cup. [BBC]
Tuesday, 1 October, 2002: A U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service memo obtained by The Associated Press last week directed inspectors registering aliens to include men, ages 16 to 45, from Saudi Arabia, Pakistan and Yemen. The memo added inspectors also can register visitors who they determine are worth monitoring, saying in part that inspectors should consider whether the visitor has made an unexplained trip to Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Libya, Sudan, Syria, N. Korea, Cuba, Saudi Arabia, Afghanistan, Yemen, Somalia, Pakistan, Indonesia or Malaysia. [AP]
Tuesday, 1 October, 2002: High Profile African footballers including Abedi Pele, Roger Milla and Basile Boli have been dropped from CAF standing Committees. Pele, Milla and Boli all supported Sepp Blatter against Issa Hayatou during the May FIFA election. Top African football administrators were supposed to meet in Tripoli, Libya to plot the ouster of Hayatou whose term expires in 2004. Tripoli, was the centre of Blatter's campaign against Hayatou. [The Monitor]
Tuesday, 1 October, 2002: Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) crude oil rose $0.78 last week to an average of $28.10 per barrel, the OPEC Secretariat said Monday. The 11 members, Saudi Arabia, Algeria, UAE, Indonesia, Iraq, Iran, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar and Venezuela, are trying to stabilize the price of crude oil at a minimum of $22 per barrel. [EFE]

   

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